« Bodhidharma (sanskrit en devanāgarī : बोधिधर्म « enseignement de sagesse » ; chinois simplifié : 菩提达摩, pútídámó ou 達摩, dámó ; japonais : 達磨, daruma ; c. fin du Ve et début du VIe siècle), moine bouddhiste persan originaire d’Inde, est le fondateur légendaire en Chine de l’école Chan, courant contemplatif (dhyāna) du mahāyāna, devenue au Japon l’école zen connue en Occident. L’école Chan prétendant remonter au Bouddha, Bodhidharma est considéré comme son 28e patriarche et comme son premier patriarche chinois.
Il existe peu d’informations biographiques qui lui soient contemporaines, et les indications subséquentes ont été surchargées de légendes. Les principales sources chinoises divergent sur ses origines, le faisant venir soit d’Inde ou d’Asie centrale.
Dans tout l’art bouddhique, Bodhidharma est dépeint sous les traits d’un non-Chinois au mauvais caractère, barbu un peu hirsute, aux grands yeux surmontés de sourcils broussailleux et à l’air sombre. Il est surnommé “Le grand voyageur” et “Le barbare aux yeux clairs” (chinois : 碧眼胡 ; pinyin : Bìyǎnhú) dans les textes chán.
En plus des textes chinois, de nombreuses traditions populaires courent sur les origines de Bodhidharma.
Le Nouveau recueil de biographies des moines éminents le fait arriver en Chine durant la dynastie Liu-Song (420-479), opinion retenue par la majorité des spécialistes, mais L’Anthologie de la salle du patriarche situe sa venue sous les Liang (502-557). Toutes les sources s’accordent pour situer l’essentiel de son activité dans le royaume des Wei du Nord. »
Excerpted from the Yoga Sutras of Patanjali by Alice Bailey & Djwhal Khul
And “A Sanskrit English Translation” By Chip Hartranft
The Yoga Sutras of Patanjali – Book 3 – Union achieved and its Results.
1. Concentration is the fixing of the chitta (mind stuff) upon a particular object. This is dharana.
We have now reached the part of the Yoga Sutras which deals specifically with mind control and with the effect of that control. The first fifteen sutras are given to the control of the mind and how it is to be attained and the remaining forty sutras concern the results which take place after this control has been gained. Twenty-four results are enumerated, and these are all along the line of expansions of consciousness and the demonstration of psychic faculties, both lower and higher.
The first step towards this unfoldment is concentration, or the ability to hold the mind steadily and unwaveringly upon that which the aspirant chooses. This first step is one of the most difficult stages in the meditation process and involves constant unremitting ability to keep bringing the mind back to that “object” upon which the aspirant has chosen to concentrate. The stages in concentration are themselves well marked and can be stated as follows:
The choice of some “object” upon which to concentrate,
The withdrawing of the mind-consciousness from the periphery of the body, so that the avenues of outer perception and contact (the five senses) are stilled, and the consciousness is no longer outgoing,
The centering of the consciousness and its steadying within the head at a point midway between the eyebrows,
The application of the mind, or the paying of close attention to the object chosen for concentration,
The visualization of that object, imaginative perception of it and logical reasoning about it,
The extension of the mental concepts which have been formed from the specific and particular to the general and the universal or cosmic,
An attempt to arrive at that which lies back of the form considered, or to reach the idea which is responsible for the form.
This process gradually steps up the consciousness and enables the aspirant to arrive at the life side of manifestation instead of the form side. He begins however with the form or “object.” Objects upon which to concentrate are of four kinds:
External objects, such as images of the deity, pictures or forms in nature,
Internal objects, such as the centers in the etheric body,
Qualities, such as the various virtues, with the intent to awaken desire for these virtues and thus to build them into the content of the personal life,
Mental concepts or those ideas which embody the ideals lying back of all animated forms. These may take the form of symbols or of words.
In one of the Puranas the idea embodied in concentration is expressed most beautifully. The aspirant is told, after he has made use of the first five means of yoga (dealt with in Book II), that he “should make a localization of the mind stuff upon some auspicious support” and this localization is illustrated by a description of the fixing of the attention upon a form of God.
“The incarnated form of the Exalted One leaves one without desire for any other support. This should be understood to be fixed, attention, when the mind stuff is fixed upon this form. And what is this incarnate form of Hari on which one should ponder, let that be heard by thee, 0 Ruler of Men. Fixed attention is not possible without something on which to fix it.” (Vishnu Purana V 1. 7. 75-85.)
Then follows a description of the incarnated form of the Exalted One, concluding with these words:
“…upon Him let the yogin ponder; and lost in Him, concentrate his own mind until, 0, King, the fixed attention becomes firmly fixed upon Him only. While performing this or while doing, as he wills, some other action wherein his mind does not wander, he should then deem this fixed attention to be perfected.” (Naradiya Purana LXVII. 54-62.)
It is the realization of the necessity for “objects” in concentration that originated the demand for images, sacred sculptures and pictures. All these objects entail the use of the lower concrete mind and this is the necessary preliminary stage. Their use brings the mind into a controlled condition so that the aspirant can make it adjust what he chooses. The four types of objects mentioned above carry the aspirant gradually inwards and enable him to transfer his consciousness from the physical plane into the etheric realm, from thence into the world of desire or of the emotions, and so into the world of mental ideas and concepts. This process, which is carried on within the brain, brings the entire lower man into a state of one-pointed coherent attention, all parts of his nature being directed to the attainment of fixed attention or a concentration of all the mental faculties. The mind then is no longer scattering, unsteady and outgoing, but is fully “fixed in attention.” Vivekananda translates “dharana” as “holding the mind to one thought for twelve seconds.” This clear, one-pointed, still perception of an object, without any other object or thought entering into one’s consciousness is most difficult of achievement, and when it can be done for the space of twelve seconds, true concentration is being achieved.
55. When the objective forms and the soul have reached a condition of equal purity, then is At-one-ment achieved and liberation results.
That which veils the light of the soul has been rendered pure, and thus the light of God streams forth. That which proved a hindrance and an obstacle to the full expression of divinity in manifestation has been so dealt with that now it serves as an adequate expression and means of service. The soul can now function freely and intelligently in the three worlds because complete unity has been reached between the lower and the higher man.
The soul and its vehicles form a unit and are at one; complete alignment of the bodies has been achieved and the Son of God can function freely on earth. Thus has the great objective been reached and through a following of the eight means of yoga the soul can manifest through the lower threefold man, and in its turn form a medium of expression for the spirit. Matter has been brought into a state where its vibration can synchronize with that of the soul, and the result is that – for the first time – spirit can make its presence felt, for “matter is the vehicle for the manifestation of soul on this plane of experience and the soul is the vehicle for the manifestation of spirit on a higher turn of the spiral. These three are a trinity synthesized by life which pervades them all.” To the man who has achieved this there is no rebirth. He is free and liberated, and can say with full conscious realization of the significance of the words:
My life (the lower physical life) is hid with Christ (the soul life) in God (the spirit.) (Col., III, 3)
The Yoga Sutras of Patanjali – Book 4 – Illumination
1. The higher and lower siddhis (or powers) are gained by incarnation, or by drugs, words of power, intense desire or by meditation.
We have now come to the fourth book in which the powers and the results gained by the practice of Raja Yoga are carried forward into group realization and it is seen that they produce universal consciousness and not simply self-consciousness. It seems the part of wisdom to protest here against the use of the words “cosmic consciousness” as untrue and misleading, for even the highest adept (note this term with care) is only gifted with solar consciousness and has no contact with that which is outside our solar system. The planetary Logoi (the seven Spirits before the Throne), and the Lords of Karma (the “four wheels” of Ezekiel) have a realization beyond that of our solar system. Lesser existences may sense it as a possibility but it is not yet part of their experience.
The powers gained fall into two main groups called:
Lower psychic powers, the lower siddhis.
Spiritual powers or the higher siddhis.
The lower powers are the result of the consciousness of the animal soul in man being en rapport with the anima mundi or the soul of the world, the subjective side of all forms in the three worlds, of all bodies in the four kingdoms of nature. The higher powers are the result of the development of group consciousness, of the second aspect of divinity. They not only include the lesser powers but put a man en rapport with those existences and forms of life which are to be found in the spiritual realms, or, as the occultist would say, on those two planes which are beyond the three worlds, and which cover the entire scale of man’s evolution, human and superhuman.
The goal of the true aspirant is the unfoldment of these higher powers which can be covered by the terms direct knowledge, intuitive perception, spiritual insight, pure vision, the attainment of the wisdom. They are different from the lower powers, for they abrogate them. These latter are accurately described for us in Book III, Sutra 37:
“These powers are obstacles to the highest spiritual realization, but serve as magical powers in the objective worlds.”
These higher powers are inclusive and are distinguished by their accuracy and infallibility when rightly employed. Their working is as instantaneous as a flash of light. The lower powers are fallible, the time element is present in its sequential sense and they are limited in their working. They form part of the great illusion and to the true aspirant constitute a limitation.
In the sutra we are considering, five means are given whereby the psychic powers are developed and it is interesting to note that we have in these words an instance of the fact that the Yoga Sutras can still be the study and teaching manual of even such advanced aspirants as the Masters of the Wisdom. These five methods are capable of application upon all the five planes of human evolution, which include the two higher planes whereon initiates of the Mysteries function.
The physical plane method.
The release of the astral consciousness.
3. Words of Power
Creation by speech, or the method of the mental plane.
4. Intense desire
The sublimation of aspiration or the method of the buddhic plane, the sphere of spiritual love.
The method of the atmic plane, the sphere of spiritual will.
In this enumeration, it might be noted that just as intense desire of a spiritual kind is a sublimation of astral or emotional desire, so meditation, as practised by the initiates, is the sublimation of all the mental processes. Therefore the two final methods given as resulting in the unfoldment of the siddhis are the only ones that are practised by initiates, being the synthesis and sublimation of the realizations achieved on the astral and mental planes.
It might, therefore, be observed that (for the seeker after truth) incarnation, intense desire and meditation are the three permissible methods, and the only ones to be practised; drugs and words of power or mantric incantations are the tools of black magic and concern the lower powers.
The question might here be asked, is it not true that words of power and the use of incense form part of the ceremonies of initiation and therefore are used by initiates and aspirants. Certainly, but not in the sense understood here, or for the purpose of developing psychic powers. The Masters and their disciples use words of power in order to deal with the non-human existences, to invoke the aid of the angels, and to manipulate the building forces of nature, and they employ herbs and incenses in order to purify conditions, eliminate undesirable entities and so make it possible for those higher upon the ladder of evolution to make their presence felt. This is, however, a very different thing to their use in order to become psychic.
It is interesting to note here that the first cause producing the unfoldment of soul powers, whether higher or lower, is the great wheel of rebirth. This must ever be taken into account. Everyone is not yet at the stage where it is possible for him to unfold the powers of the soul. The soul aspect is still dormant for many because full experience and development of the lower nature has not yet been undergone. The forty years’ wandering in the wilderness with the Tabernacle and the conquest of Canaan, had to precede the rule of the kings and the building of the Temple of Solomon. Lives must be passed before the body, or the Mother aspect, is so perfected that the Christ Child can be formed within the prepared vessel. It should also be remembered that the possession of the lower psychic powers is in many cases a symptom of a low stage of evolution and of the close association of their owner with the animal nature. This has to be outgrown before the higher powers can blossom forth.
It is needless to point out that the use of alcohol and of drugs can and does release the astral consciousness, as also the practice of sex magic, but this is astralism pure and simple and with this the true student of Raja Yoga has naught to do. It is part of unfoldment on the left-hand Path. The gaining of the soul powers by intense desire (or fervent aspiration) and by meditation has been covered in the other books and need not be enlarged upon here.
32. The modifications of the mind stuff (or qualities of matter), through the inherent nature of the three gunas come to an end, for they have served their purpose.
33. Time, which is the sequence of the modifications of the mind, likewise terminates, giving place to the Eternal Now.
34. The state of isolated unity becomes possible when the three qualities of matter (the three gunas or potencies of nature) no longer exercise any hold over the Self. The pure spiritual consciousness withdraws into the One.
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